Biological Analysis

What is toxicology?

Toxicology is an applied discipline that studies the harmful effects of exogenous factors (chemical, physical, biological factors) on biological systems. It is a science that studies the toxicity, severity, frequency, and mechanism of toxic effects of chemical substances on organisms, as well as qualitative and quantitative evaluation of toxic effects. It is a discipline that predicts its harm to the human body and the ecological environment, and provides a scientific basis for determining the safety limit and taking preventive measures.

Theoretical Basis of Toxicology
Mainly apply the theory and technology of basic disciplines such as physiology, pharmacology, biology, biochemistry and pathology; study the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and toxic effects of foreign substances through animal experiments, clinical observations and epidemiological investigation methods Its mechanism and poisoning treatment are not only to protect human beings and other organisms from the harmful effects of chemical substances and protect people’s health, but also to directly develop poisons with good selective effects. More selective drugs and pesticides, etc., and conduct safety evaluation or risk evaluation of chemical substances, formulate health standards, and provide scientific basis. Toxicology is closely related to pharmacology, and has now developed into an independent discipline with certain basic theories and experimental methods, and has gradually formed some new branches of toxicology.

Toxicological effects
The currently accepted definition of toxicology is the science that studies the harm of exogenous chemicals to living organisms. Since the purpose of toxicology research is to protect the health or safety of organisms, toxicology belongs to preventive medicine in terms of the nature of the discipline, and runs through the idea of ​​prevention as the mainstay.

Since the research objects of toxicology are wide, including chemical factors, physical factors, and biological factors, and organisms include humans, animals, and plants, toxicology is related to pharmacology, physiology, pathology, chemistry, biochemistry, and biology; It is connected to industry, agriculture, the economy; it is connected to forensic science, clinical medicine, ecology and environmental protection; it is connected, so to speak, to the entire future of life on earth.

Therefore, toxicology is widely used in clinical medicine, pharmacy, environmental protection, zoology, prenatal and postnatal care, occupational labor protection and food hygiene. Therefore, the classification of toxicology is very complicated, and it can be classified from different angles, and it is not completely consistent.

Toxicological classification
From the research content, it can be divided into three parts: descriptive toxicology, mechanism toxicology and management toxicology (also known as regulatory toxicology).

It can be divided into: forensic toxicology, clinical toxicology, management toxicology or regulatory toxicology, research toxicology, etc.

From applied toxicology, it can be divided into: food toxicology, industrial toxicology, pesticide toxicology, military toxicology, radiotoxicology, environmental toxicology, ecotoxicology and other branches.

The research objects can be divided into: insect toxicology, veterinary toxicology, human toxicology and plant toxicology.

From the research fields, it can be divided into: drug toxicology, environmental toxicology, food toxicology, industrial toxicology, clinical toxicology, forensic toxicology, analytical toxicology, military toxicology, management toxicology, etc.

The target organs or systems studied can be divided into: organ toxicology, liver toxicology, renal toxicology, ocular toxicology, ear toxicology, neurotoxicology, reproductive toxicology, immunotoxicology, etc.

Bioanalytical Service – PK Studies