Biological Analysis

Toxicology study methods and advantages and disadvantages

Toxicological study is a term of radiation medicine and protection announced in 2014. study work to provide basic toxicological data for risk assessment. Including the source of radioactive substances and their release to the environment, the route of human exposure, the size and duration of the dose caused by exposure, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the body, the biological effect of the body and its occurrence mechanism, etc.

Toxicology study methods include epidemiological studies, controlled clinical studies (human observation), toxicology in vivo experiments (experimental animals), and toxicology in vitro experiments.

Different study methods have their own characteristics, and their respective advantages, disadvantages and limitations are as follows:

1. Epidemiological studies

Advantages: true exposure conditions; interactions between chemicals; determination of effects in population; representation of overall human sensitivity.

Limitations: Costly and time-consuming; mostly retrospective, no health protection; difficult to determine exposure, confounding exposure problems; detectable risk increase must be more than 2 times; crude measurement indicators (morbidity, mortality) .

2. Controlled clinical studies:

Advantages: Prescribed limiting exposure conditions; responses are measured in a population; studies of certain groups of people are robust (eg, asthmatics); strength of effects can be measured.

Disadvantages: high cost; lower concentrations and shorter exposures; limited to small populations (generally <50); limited to temporary, small, reversible effects; generally not suitable for the most sensitive populations to study.

3. Toxicology in vivo test

Advantages: easy to control exposure conditions; can measure a variety of effects; can evaluate the role of host characteristics (such as: gender, age, genetic characteristics, etc. and other regulatory factors diet, etc.); can evaluate the mechanism.

Disadvantages: Uncertainty associated with animal exposure versus human exposure; 2. Controlled rearing conditions are inconsistent with human reality; patterns of concentration and time exposure differ significantly from human exposure.

4. Toxicology in vitro test

Advantages: Fewer influencing factors, easy to control; some in-depth study (such as: mechanism, metabolism); less human and material resources.

Disadvantages: It cannot fully reflect the toxic effects, and cannot be used as the final basis for toxicity assessment and risk assessment; it is difficult to observe chronic toxic effects.

Bioanalytical Service – PK Studies