What are the ingredients of a COVID-19 vaccine?

What is an mRNA vaccine? Like other types of vaccines, mRNA vaccines work by activating our own immune response, so that our bodies produce antibodies that can kill foreign viruses. It is only different from traditional vaccines that use weak or inactivated viruses/bacteria to activate the autoimmune response, mRNA vaccines activate the autoimmune response by teaching our cells how to encode a viral protein or even a fragment of a viral protein.


Many people are curious to know what the ingredients are for the three currently available COVID-19 vaccines in the US.

Here is a breakdown of the three COVID-19 vaccines and their ingredients:

Pfizer/BioNTech – The full list of ingredients for the Pfizer vaccine is: mRNA, lipids ((4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis(2-hexyldecanoate), 2 [(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N,N-ditetradecylacetamide, 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and cholesterol), potassium chloride, monobasic potassium phosphate, sodium chloride, dibasic sodium phosphate dihydrate, and sucrose.
The Pfizer vaccine does not contain eggs, preservatives, or latex.

Moderna – The full list of ingredients for the Moderna vaccine is: Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), lipids (SM-102, polyethylene glycol(PEG) 2000 dimyristoyl glycerol [DMG], cholesterol, and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DSPC]), tromethamine,tromethamine hydrochloride, acetic acid, sodium acetate trihydrate, and sucrose.
The Moderna vaccine does not contain eggs, preservatives, or latex.

Johnson & Johnson/Janssen – The full list of ingredients for the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is: Recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus type 26 expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, citric acid monohydrate, trisodium citrate dihydrate, ethanol, 2 hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBCD), polysorbate-80, sodium chloride.
The Johnson & Johnson vaccine does not contain eggs, preservatives, or latex.

The mRNA in the vaccine is wrapped by a material called lipid nanoparticle, because the vaccination is mainly in the form of arm injection, so the mRNA in the vaccine mainly enters our muscle cells, and of course also There may be very few that enter some special immune cells. The vaccine that enters the human body is basically a salt solution, except for mRNA, which is similar to the salinity of the body, mainly for transmission, and belongs to a very natural substance.

The main active ingredient of the Chinese inactivated vaccine is inactivated new coronavirus, and the excipients are disodium hydrogen phosphate (dodecane water), sodium oxide, sodium dihydrogen carbonate (mono water), aluminum hydroxide adjuvant adenovirus vector vaccine use The first is human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5), which is widely used in recombinant gene therapy and vaccine vectors. The recombinant protein vaccine uses transgenic technology to produce the RBD protein on the virus S protein, which can achieve high yield, high purity and low cost.

AxisPharm has over 5,000 high purity PEG linker kept in stock. The wide selection of lengths and functionalities will empower the PEGylation, bioconjugation, crosslinking, ADC drug development, and biolabeling for pharmaceutical and biotech R&D.
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